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What is welding? Process and Types of Welding

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Arya Ebrahimi
17 Min Read
How does welding work
How does welding work

Welding is the process of joining metal or alloy parts together by melting an area and layering it on top of a second piece. There are several types of welds, but they all come from one principle: joining two pieces together will make them stronger than if they were only brought together with adhesion alone.

Discover welding definition, usage, types and different process in details.

Dieter Rams

Fundamentals of Welding

To weld is to use heat to fuse materials. A welding machine is necessary since it transfers the heat to the welded components. The three main parts of welding machines are the energy source, the power source, and the welding mechanism for delivering the two in a manner that maximizes output with little input.

The key elements are temperature and time. The higher you get those two variables up, the less you need to worry about concentration or technique as skill factors that could interfere with fusion or penetration. You set your machine up correctly and let it do its job while you prepare for yours.

Choosing the Right Welding Technique

Remember, the goal is fusion. You want full penetration with a minimum of fuss. So you’ll be looking for the most efficient way to get there. Spot welding, for example, is a very common industrial method of joining parts because it takes relatively little time and can be accomplished by unskilled labor with relatively simple welding equipment. But its drawback is that it only works on small components that are close together; you can’t weld a chain link using spot welding equipment, but you could weld its links.

Mechanisms of Welding

Components can be put together in many different ways. But you’ll need to know the difference between the two most common types, electric arc welding and gas metal arc welding. Both are arc processes, so learning about each one separately will help you judge and choose between them.

Mechanisms of Welding
Mechanisms of Welding

Benefits of Welding:

  • Welding is a fast and efficient process
  • Welding provides a way of making any metal structure
  • Cost-effective option compared to other fabrication techniques
  • It can be easily inspected for quality assurance purposes
  • More durable than traditional connections
  • Allows for a variety of fabrication techniques
  • It can be used in a variety of applications

How does welding work?

How does welding work
How does welding work

Welding is the careful use of heat to combine two different materials. Welding is a process in which two metals are heated together to make a new metal, which is then used to join the two parts together.

Know the answers about welding and be a professional welder with welding for less.

Electrical arcs or gas flames are used in welding to melt the filler metal, the material being joined. If you want to weld, you need to be able to keep the flame from getting too big and burning through the material. Spot welding is done by keeping a constant distance between the welder’s tip and the base metal. You need to control your flame very precisely and move it over the base material.

Welding Types and Processes

Welding is a way to join two pieces of metal together. Welding is a method for joining two pieces together by melting the material where they meet. All welding techniques involve using heat to join two different kinds of materials together.

Some important and often-used welding processes and techniques include:

  • Metal inert gas (MIG) or active metal gas (MAG) welding
  • Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
  • Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
  • Inert Gas Metal Arc Welding (IGMAW)
  • Electric Resistance Welder (ERW)
  • Arc Attachment Welding (AAW)
  • Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
  • Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
  • Fluxed-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
  • Direct Current Arc Welding (DCAW)
  • Gas Metal Tungsten Arc Welder (GMAW)

Mig welding:

Mig welding is a welding process that uses a gas-fired area welder to cut through metal with a Mig weld. This type of welding is often used in aerospace and car parts production. It is less expensive and more efficient than other types of welding, making it a good choice for products that require high quality.

Stick Welding:

One of the most common ways to join things together. In this method, the electrical current passes through an electrode, which gets hotter than the substrate. The electrode is then pressed against the surface to make a tiny bond. Once the heat transfer starts, the base metal melts quickly and forms a pool of liquid around the wire.

Gas Metal Arc Welding:

This way of welding has become the norm in the modern world. In particular, it has a wire feeder that keeps a steady stream of filler wire coming out. In this method, a wire electrode made of aluminum is put right into the weld pool, which melts and causes the metal to harden.

Flux-Cored Arc Welding:

During this welding, flux is added to the weld pool, which cools the molten metal. In this process, which is done in a controlled environment, flux-coated wire feeders are used. Melted metal flows into the spaces between the filler wire and the pipe to make a strong weld.

Tungsten Inert Gas Welding:

In this method, a spool of filler wire is constantly pushed through an electrode that is not being used. Feeding a non-consumable electrode wire into the weld pool melts the metal in the pool, which then flows through the torch’s opening and into the finished product.

Submerged Arc Welding:

Electric current is used to make a direct current arc between an electrode and the base material, which is then welded together. Using an electric arc, the material is melted into a pool of molten metal, which is then used to join the parts together.

Plasma Arc Welding:

A charge of electricity gives this welding its power. Welding is done by making an arc between a flame or electrode and the material to be joined. Because of the electric charge, the two materials will join together, making a strong connection. You can do this even if you are underwater.

Hyperbaric Welding:

The submarine manufacturing sector makes extensive use of this sort of welding technique. The welder wears a specialized helmet covering his face as he works, allowing him to remain underwater. In addition to the plasma arc welding equipment, the welder must wear protective welding clothing to operate in high-pressure conditions.

Welding Equipment

For different kinds of welding, you need different equipment. You need one set of tools to weld steel to steel, but to weld aluminum to steel; you need a whole different set. There are many different welding equipment to fit a wide range of materials, processes, and user preferences.

  • Consumables (Based on welding types)
  • Torches and welding electrodes
  • Welder (For work needs)
  • Welder and cylinder Cart
  • Plasma Cutters
  • Welding Tables
  • Coplay Norstar
  • Gas Cylinders
  • Welding Guns
  • Welding Wire
  • Regulators
  • Tungsten and many more.

Welders must use the following safety equipment at the job site:

  • Welding Helmets
  • Welding Screens
  • Face Shields
  • Welding Jackets & Gloves. 

Other safety equipment will be needed for various welding tasks.

Welding Joints Details

Welding joints are a critical part of any welding process and account for a large percentage of the overall welding time. Based on various kinds of the configuration of joints, there are different types of welding joints, including

  • Butt joint
  • Corner joint
  • Edge joint
  • Lap joint
  • Tee joint
  • Flat joint
  • Jig joint
  • T-joint
  • Circle joint
What is welding? Process and Types of Welding

Butt joint

Butt joints are weld joints in which the ends of two materials are put near each other with little or little space in between. Sheets, bars, and tubes may all be welded together using the same technique. Extra care has to be taken when welding large tubes with this sort of junction.

Corner joint

In a corner joint, two pieces are placed together so that their corners are flush. Corner joints are used when welding large sections of metal that never meet. Cornered joints may also be welded at 90-degree angles, as with a T-joint.

Edge joint

An edge joint is a weld used between two pieces of metal with a weld bead in their edges (thus the name). It is less common than the other types of joints and can be installed while the parts are held together by clamps or wedges.

Lap joint

Lap joints are mainly used to join thick, flat plates. This type of weld is stronger than a butt joint because the pieces do not have to be welded on ends.

Tee joint

In a tee joint, one piece of metal goes between two other pieces. This type of weld is suitable for joining two parallel pieces (often called tee beams), which are thicker than the length of the smaller pieces.

Flat joint

By turning the two parts against one another during the welding process, welders may create a flat junction, a sort of butt weld. Even though this weld is perfect for putting thin plates together, it does not endure as long as other connections because the heat generated by the friction weakens it.

Jig joint

A jig weld is a type of butt weld in which one piece of metal is placed between two others that are held together by clamps or wedges, and then the parts are sealed with welding rods. The longer pieces usually face each other in this joint, but short sections may be angled inward toward the central axis to support their weight.


A T-joint is mainly used for joining tubes together in which one piece is rotated around the other to create a U-shape. The two pieces stay in place during the welding process and cannot be rotated during the welding process.

Circle joint

A circle joint is a weld that joins pieces of metal at an angle so that their ends touch. This type of weld creates a tiny spot that should be carefully inspected before welding.

How to Become a Welder

Welding is a required skill for completing many tasks in our everyday lives. It can be a great way to add value to your life and improve the quality of your work. To become a welder, you need basic knowledge and skills. There are several ways to become a welder. The options available can be split into different categories. The first category is welding professionals, and the second is professional welding courses. The third category is self-learning or home learning.

FAQs about welding

Why do we weld?

The main reason we weld is that people want to construct things and repair them. People also want to build and make things themselves, as they can be economical and fix problems. If a person welds something (electrical or electronic wiring), then their job is done because the person has built something that was meant to be temporary; however, if the person welds on the metal itself, then what happens when the weld fails? It means that the person will have problems with their work again because it is not possible for a person to fix a problem that cannot be seen.

How fast can a welder weld?

A welder can weld up to 400 inches of an inch in one minute. However, this will vary depending on how far away the welder is welding. If a welder stands right next to their piece of metal, they can weld 200 inches an inch in one minute. However, if the welder is not close enough to their work, they will only be able to weld 100 inches per minute.

What jobs do welders do?

Welders have many welding jobs, such as structural and piping designers, forge workers, structural steel fabricators, erectors, boiler makers, and power plant technicians.

How much does a welder make an hour?

The average salary for a welder is $40 per hour. However, some companies pay welders more than this.

Where can you learn to weld?

The best way to become a welder is by going to a welding school and doing a vocational course. Welding schools have many different courses in the field of welding, including cutters, welders, pipefitters, and so on. Many courses are not related to welding, such as professional facial beauty, computer games, etc. Make sure you choose the right course because if you don’t, you will not be able to learn to weld as quickly and efficiently as possible.

What welding jobs pay over 100k per year?

Welder jobs that pay over $100k per year are

  1. Welding Supervisors
  2. Sales/Marketing Executives
  3. Construction Managers
  4. Project Engineers and Managers
  5. Electrical and Electronics Engineers
  6. Business Operations Specialists and Others

Which gas is used in welding?

Many different gases are used in welding, depending on the type of weld and the material being welded. The welding gas that is used is called acetylene. Acetylene is the most common gas used in welding. There are different forms of acetylene, hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, and oxygen.

What are some jobs a welder can do?

Welders can work in construction, shipyards, or even steel fabrication companies. A welder must ensure they can do all types of welding that might be needed on their job. It means that a welder will have to learn several types of welding, such as MIG/TIG, stick, friction, and gas (oxyacetylene).

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